Khajuraho – offbeat and mesmerising

When one has travelled as much as I have, it becomes quite commonplace to plan for new travel destinations and one may get a sense of, “been there, done that”. Khajuraho was quite different though as it was something both Lipi and I wanted to do for a long time. Now that we are done with the trip, I can only say that it met our expectations in full measure. For those interested in going there this post will be helpful.

Coming to the actual travel, we started on 20th February morning from our home in Hyderabad. The short ride to the airport is always exhilarating in the morning on the ORR expressway. Hyderabad airport is now crowded at most times but, as regular travellers, we have now learnt to take these in our stride. Once we were through the Security check, we headed towards our oasis in the airport – the Plaza Premium lounge. this provides relative serenity in the hustle and bustle of the airport as well as great food options at most times of the day. Fortified by the breakfast, we boarded the flight and did what we normally do – Lipi catching up with her sleep and me with my reading. We made a short stopover at Noida at my mother-in-law’s place and had a great lunch there. She also insisted on packing some dinner for us which came in rather handy later on.

Our train journey by the UP Sampark Kranti Express was uneventful but we were privy to some rather interesting conversation on Khajuraho, courtesy some local people who were travelling with us. When I woke up it was rather dark and the feeling I had of closing in on our destination was quite thrilling. The train reached Khajuraho station fairly early in the morning and just as we came outside we were accosted by a person named Jainam who wanted us to get into his car to reach our hotel. Though I did not have much faith in the sheet of paper that he proffered, 200 Rs seemed a reasonable fare and we set off. The journey by car was short and we saw the two airports, national and international, on our way. The road leading to our hotel Isabel Palace was a dusty one and I started wondering as to whether we had made a good choice of the hotel. However, the interiors were quite good and we were given a room immediately even though it wasn’t 8 in the morning yet.

The hotel had a fixed menu breakfast on the terrace. You could view the Vindhya hills at a distance and paddy fields up close. The 360 degree view along with the tasty Indian breakfast of stuffed parathas and pooris started our day on the right note. We had worked out a deal with our guide cum driver Jainam and soon set out to see the star attraction of the trip, namely the temples of the Western group first. It was only a short drive from the hotel, in Khajuraho most distances are short. The immediate road stretch in front of the temple complex has been cordoned off for vehicular traffic and this is a good step. Tickets were cheap but the official Guides really expensive. We still got one as it is always good to hear from them and it proved to be a good decision. Apart from giving up the details of temples and the sculptures he also doubled up as our official photographer for the day and snapped quite a few pictures of Lipi and me. This was nice as we normally end every travel nowadays with very few pics of us together.

The Western temple complex has most of the temples standing today and is really the UNESCO world heritage site. The temples are all in pretty good shape and have been restored well where needed, the landscaped gardens look beautiful and due to the lack of massive crowds you can set your own pace. We started with the Lakshmana Temple which is dedicated to Vishnu and has a few smaller temples in front of it. The Varaha Temple, dedicated to the third incarnation of Vishnu as a wild Boar is small but has a huge statue of a Boar which is rather impressive. The carvings along the Lakshmana temple contain a lot of erotic sculpture for which Khajuraho is widely known. While these are rather explicitly depicted, the overall numbers would probably be less than 10 %. Also, the sculptures are really about everyday life and it seems that sex was dealt with and spoken of quite openly during the times the temples were built.

About 200 metres from the Lakshmana temple is the most famous temple of Khajuraho and easily the most majestic one in structure and stature. My memories of it stretched long back to my school days when I read about it in my Cultural history classes and was quite impressed by it. In real life it was even more impressive than what my imagination had allowed for. The Jagdambika temple next to it is on the same raised platform and the duo clearly dominate the Western complex. Just going around the temples and staring up at the rising Shikaras will inspire you with awe. Add to it the richly carved panels with the intricate sculptures and you realise the extent of the artistic and human endeavour that went into creating these masterpieces. Muslim invasion had desecrated the shines but even those callous souls probably could not bring themselves to destroy such beauty.

The rest of the temples were nice too, the Chitragupta temple and the Vishvanath temple being noteworthy. The Dance festival has the Chitragupta temple as it’s fantastic background and we witnessed that in the evening. After the Western group we went to the Southern temples and the Eastern Jain ones. While these were quite impressive too and the Chaturvuja temple was unique in the statue of Vishnu with 4 heads. The Jain temple complex was really serene and nice though architecturally not so striking maybe. The temples done we proceeded to have lunch at Agarwal’s which was a great vegetarian restaurant and had a variety of Thali’s and other fares to choose from. The simple thali we chose turned out to be quite sumptuous and rounded off the morning experience.

After some rest at the hotel we were back to the temple complex in the evening. We first went to the only temple in Khajuraho where worship is prevalent and saw the 9 feet Shiva lingam made of sandstone, glistening due to all the polish it has got over the years. The evening Arathi was just starting as we came down the steps and the music with the chanting along with all the devotees clapping to it was a heady mix. Next stop was the Khajuraho Dance festival which was really more of a Fair. There were stalls put up from different states with all kinds of textiles and handicrafts, there were food stalls ans an Art Mart featuring work of many artistes. The Dance stage was impressive and had the Chitragupta temple as it’s beautiful backdrop. We saw three performances of Bharat Natyam, Kathak and Manipuri dances and each one held our attention completely. The entire experience was a surreal one and exceeded all expectations that I had of it. If you are a lover of art and culture, you must visit Khajuraho dance festival at least once.

Dinner was at well known Rajah Cafe run by a Swiss. We had some chicken Brochette which was quite good along with another chicken dish with Rotis. After a restful night we were off the next day on nature trail. First stop was Ken Ghariyal Sanctuary which has some wild life and apparently a lot of crocodiles. Even though we did not see any crocodiles there, the views of the Ken river and the different small lakes that it forms within the sanctuary were hugely worth it. Lipi did not want to climb the watch tower but I decided to test my fitness by doing so and was rewarded by some great views. The Raneh falls did not have any waterfall as the monsoons last year had been almost absent. However, this allowed us to see the Canyon properly and the sheer scale, variety, colour and arrangement of the rocks were truly remarkable. Quite possibly the only place in India where you would get to see this. After lunch we were at the Panna Tiger reserve in a Gypsy and with a very knowledgeable Guide. Panna is uniquely beautiful due to the Ken river that runs through it. This also has several alligators and crocodiles along with a host of water birds. We saw Herons, Kingfishers, Storks, Cormorants and Peacocks just to name a few. Deer of different types were in abundance starting with Nilgai, Sambar, Barking deer, spotted dear, Barasinghas etc. It was a great sight to see a couple of young deer in full flight with both feet off the air. Though we heard some people seeing the tigress and two cubs and waited patiently on a long vigil by the Ken river, the tiger eluded us. The whole park experience was rather nice though and catching the sunset as we were exiting the park was really the icing on the cake. The long drive back and the exhausting day necessitated an early dinner and we were off to sleep quickly.

The final day was reserved for Museums but unfortunately two of these were closed for the day. We did get to see the Tribal museum which had some really nice stuff in terms of paintings and handicrafts along with implements of day to day use of the tribal’s. Lipi went off to buy some souvenirs from the market while I took another look at the Western group of Temples in order to look at some sculptures closely. Another sumptuous vegetarian lunch followed and we were back to Khajuraho station soon. The station facade is in the shape of a temple and is apt for the place.

The train journey back was good as we met an old couple who have been coming to Khajuraho for several years and it was nice of them to share some of their dinner with us. Next day we stopped by Lipi’s place once more and made it to Hyderabad in the evening. It has been a great trip that had everything – culture, heritage, nature, wild life all rolled into one.

We are looking forward to the next trip in a few days time – complete change of setting as we will go to Goa now.

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A travel plan for Khajuraho

I am passionate about many things in life, but if I had to choose one it would definitely be travel. Over the years we have travelled to a lot of different destinations, both inside and out of India. I always look forward to a new year thinking of the new places we may get to visit or the old ones where we may rediscover new experiences. In 2018, one of the places I had on my radar was Khajuraho and I am happy that we are going there this week.

Planning for travel is one of the activities I truly enjoy and, over the years, I have got pretty good at it. This time, the idea of a Khajuraho visit came to me in January. My mother-in-law, who is normally with us in December and January to avoid the Delhi winters, was leaving on 11th February and our daughter Rinki was coming back home after completing her BM program at XLRI on 27th. So we really had to go in the intervening period. What really sealed the deal for me was seeing the news of the Khajuraho Dance festival being held this year between 20th and 22nd February. I am a great fan of all types of Indian cultural performances and one of my great joys was to watch the dancers perform in the Mamallapuram Dance festival when we were in Chennai. The Khajuraho dance festival seemed like the perfect occasion to visit there.

Life today has got much easier due to the amount of information present on the internet, especially if you know how to search for it well. I normally start by reading up on the place first to get a general sense of the location, transport options, sightseeing options etc. Next, I search for any travel blogs written about the place and also the itineraries by different tour operators. This gives me a rather good idea about how many days we will need at the place, travel options to reach there, food and stay options. Once I am clear on these I plan my itinerary and check on the dates, travel options and bookings.

Here is how I planned for Khajuraho:-

  • Based on my readings I decided that 3 days will be enough to visit the Khajuraho temple complexes, view performances at the dance festival as well as go for a half day safari to Panna national park.
  • From Hyderabad the logical way to travel will be through Bhopal or Jabalpur. However, both involved long train journeys and expensive flight tickets with not very convenient timing. It did not make sense to travel 2 days for a 3 day trip.
  • As there was a good night train between Delhi and Khajuraho, I decided to do the unusual and go through Delhi, despite it not making geographical sense.
  • I booked the tickets for the train both ways first and then looked at the flight options. As I was having some flexibility of dates, courtesy some stay options in Delhi for night stays if needed, I was able to get tickets at great prices.
  • Next step was to book accommodation for 2 nights in Khajuraho. I looked at Trivago site to get a good deal from Booking.com
  • Final step was to book the evening safari at Panna national park through the online facility in the MP government site. This is a great option as you can do things directly yourself without getting entangled with touts etc. 

Now finally for the costs:-

  • Train costs were 1920 Rs for onward journey in AC 3 Tier and 2720 Rs for the return journey in AC 2 Tier.
  • Flight costs were 9800 Rs for both legs of the journey 🙂
  • Hotel cost for 2 nights was about 4200 Rs.
  • Safari permits were 520 Rs, Jeep and Guide costs will come to another 700 Rs or so.
  • Food, taxis and incidental expenses will be in the range of another 7000 Rs or so.

So at an overall cost of 27000 Rs or thereabouts we are leaving for a reasonably comfortable trip to a long awaited destination. Must say that I am feeling quite kicked about it.

How to realign your MF portfolio

In several of my earlier blog posts, I have covered practically all aspects of MF investments and you should be in good shape if you are starting off to create a MF portfolio from scratch. However, as some readers reminded me, most of us are already having an MF portfolio and some of us are having SIP investments in several funds. Different portfolios for different goals can also lead to people holding more funds than is either necessary or desirable.

The good thing is you can realign your portfolio and get into a logical allocation quite easily. As I have covered the basic logic of my suggested portfolio structure and SIP / one time investments I will not repeat them in this post. You can read these posts here and here. In this post I will outline a simple method by which you can realign your portfolio.

Step 1 : Be clear about your intended portfolio structure:

  • For the long term you need just 4 funds – a large cap fund, a mid cap fund, a multi cap fund and a small cap fund. If you want to hedge your bets you can add an International fund, mainly US based.
  • You do not need to have any Balanced funds, Sector funds or Thematic funds.
  • Always go for Direct funds as the lower cost will enhance your returns significantly over the long run.
  • Remember you need only 1 portfolio for all your goals and not a separate one for each goal.

Step 2: Map your current portfolio to the above portfolio structure:

  • Check if the funds you hold are aligned to the above portfolio. If not then discard them logically from your portfolio.
  • For the aligned funds, check if they are suitable for your portfolio. Read about how to select funds here. If any of the funds are not suitable then discard these.
  • We will decide what to do with the discarded funds later on.

Step 3: Get to your new portfolio structure:

  • Take whatever you have got from step 2 and add other funds based on the portfolio structure and the selection method.
  • Now you have s set of 4-5 funds in your portfolio. In all of these your investment value is either zero or equal to the earlier investment, in case you are retaining any of your earlier funds.

Step 4: Decide on your investment amount per month:

  • To begin with use a SIP calculator to check what should be your monthly investment. You can take any rate of return between 10 and 15 % based on your comfort level.
  • You can start by putting equal amounts in all 4-5 funds. However, if you prefer a fund type over another then you can tweak with the monthly SIP amounts. It does not matter a great deal, as long as you have got the portfolio correct.
  • Increase the SIP amount every year based on the availability of extra money to invest.

Step 5: Redeem the discarded funds at the right time and invest into your new portfolio:

  • Redeem your discarded funds at a time when it seems right. There is no exact formula but you can observe the trends and take a call. For example, if the Nifty reaches a level between 10800 and 11000 now it will be a good time to redeem the funds that you do not want to be in any more.
  • There is no rush in this, your investments are growing even if you have discarded the funds logically from your portfolio. Once you have redeemed the funds be in cash or keep the money in a liquid fund, till it is time to buy.
  • Invest the above money through one time purchases of the funds in your new portfolio at an appropriate time.

As you can see from here realignment of the portfolio is a fairly simple exercise, once you are clear about the mechanism. If you feel that you need to do it, the right time to start is NOW. In case you are not invested in the right funds then any further investment in them is completely senseless.

In case you have any questions on realigning your portfolio, comment on this post and I will be happy to clarify.

Interested readers may pls follow my blog on email by clicking on the relevant button on the right hand panel. I will shortly be stopping the practice of posting the links in different Facebook groups. Following the blog will ensure you get intimated whenever there is a new post.

Equity MF dividends – the whole story

After my last few posts I am getting a lot of enquiries from people as to what they should do about their schemes with dividend options now. Many are unclear about the tax and how will it be treated in their hands. In this post I wanted to demystify the dividends from equity MF and suggest ways about how you can deal with them.

To begin with let us understand how a Dividend option of an MF scheme is different from a stock. Any company, whose stock you hold, will pay you dividends from the profits that it makes in a quarter or year. Based on the amount of dividend paid the stock price will normally fall initially but may well rise later. In the case of a Dividend paying MF scheme, the dividends are being paid out from the assets held by the scheme. As some of these assets are liquidated the NAV of the fund will necessarily fall after a dividend is declared. Yes, it may rise again if the stocks in the MF scheme portfolio do well but it is fundamentally different from the stocks.

Let us now examine the taxation aspect of dividends before and after the budget. When a company declared dividends it was out of the profits where taxes have already been paid by the company. Therefore the dividend that investors received was tax free. In the case of equity MF schemes too they did not pay any holding tax and whatever dividend the investor got was again tax free in their hands. After the budget the situation remains the same for stocks but has definitely changed for MF schemes. These will now have to hold a tax of 10 % before distributing the dividends to the investors. This is the Dividend Distribution Tax ( DDT ) newly introduced in this budget. Remember that Debt funds always had a DDT of more than 28 % earlier and continue to do so.

How does this change things for you now? Well, for one you will have lower dividends for your equity MF schemes due to the DDT. Typically this will be 10 % lower. It will continue to be tax free in your hands. For example, I had invested 2 lacs in the dividend option of a  Value Fund series NFO from ICICI. Every year I would get 15000 Rs dividend from this investment. All things remaining equal, the value of this dividend after the new DDT rule will be 13500. If an investor is depending on these dividends for passive income then he will need to get this shortfall from somewhere else.

In general Dividend option is not a good idea for equity MF now – note that companies pay tax on their earnings and this is reflected in the stock price and also the level of dividend they pay to their investors. Equity MF are investing in these companies and are again paying DDT. Finally when you redeem these investments you will again be charged LTCG tax at 10 %. It will be much better to just deal with the Growth option where you just pay LTCG tax when you redeem your units.

Let us now look at some classes of investors who are currently invested in these MF schemes and what they should do about it:-

  • If you are in the active income earning stage of your life, there is no logic in having Dividend options for your MF schemes. Change all of them to growth. Even if you need the money you will be better off just redeeming some units as and when you need to do so.
  • If you had chosen this option in order to do some explicit profit booking by the Fund houses then your concept was wrong. Fund Managers will churn their portfolios as and when required and these benefits will reflect in the NAV of your scheme. There is really no need to invest in the Dividend option for it. You should also change it to Growth option.
  • People in the retired or FI state may have invested in these schemes as a means of getting regular income. Some Balanced funds have schemes where they distribute a monthly dividend. Note that all of these are subject to DDT now – so either you will get less dividend in your hands or the fund NAV will fall more if the same dividend is to be maintained.

Except in the last case, where some people may want a hassle free receipt of dividend as compared to redeeming units on their own, there is really no point in Dividend options of MF schemes now. In fact, with online redeeming being possible, anyone can sell units of MF schemes rather easily and I will definitely recommend that.

Short conclusion to the story – change all your MF schemes to Growth option right now!!

How should you invest in Mutual funds now?

Whichever way you want to look at it, the Finance minister has definitely sent all MF investors in a tizzy with his LTCG taxation on equity. This was always likely to happen and many investors, used to a diet of high growth with no taxes to account for, are shocked and wondering what they should do with their existing investments and new ones. I will give you a very clear recipe in this post that you can follow effectively.

To begin with, the popularity of MF investment through SIP were due to two main factors. The first was the marketing skills of the Fund houses and the awareness on inflation created by the myriad financial blogs and Facebook groups. Investors realised that traditional investments such as Fixed deposits, PPF, LIC schemes, Bonds etc would not keep pace with inflation and they had to look at equity to a certain extent for meeting their important life goals. For these set of people, investing in MF seemed like a less risky idea as compared to direct equity. The successful model of sales and distribution put in place by Fund houses have ensured that they have mopped up amounts nearing 1 lac crore annually.

However, there was another reason which many are not cognisant about. When the Finance minister change the LTCG indexation benefits from 1 year to 3 years in his first budget, he actively pushed people away from schemes like Fixed Maturity Plans. With declining interest rates, longer holding period and reduced inflation unfavourably affecting the indexation benefits, suddenly Debt funds were really not a good option for people wanting to park their money in short term. The Fund houses responded by coming up with schemes like Arbitrage funds and Equity Savings funds where the safety was greater than pure equity funds, returns were better than Debt funds and the holding period needed to be one year only for getting tax exempt returns. Many Fund houses even offered monthly dividend on Balanced MF schemes which were particularly suited to retired people, in search of a regular monthly income.

Thanks to the FM all this is a matter of the past now. Given the current situation, how should you deal with your MF investments? I have put together some simple guidelines for different types of investors, that will give you a clear road map of what you should do:-

  • If you are an investor whose goals are still some time off:-
    • Keep investing in your SIP as before but add 10 % to the amount for taking care of the eventual taxation.
    • Make sure you have only Growth option schemes in your portfolio as it makes little sense to get dividends now, unless you really need it.
    • If you have set up STP for your monthly flows into SIP, evaluate if this makes sense. You will be taxed for selling the funds now.
    • As churning is detrimental to your returns now, make sure you select the right MF schemes and stick to them for the long term. Yes, you still need to review etc but change the scheme only when really needed.
    • The longer you hold your investments the better it will be for you. Redeem only when you actually need the money, not otherwise.
  • If you are an investor with major goals coming up:-
    • Check out if you can meet your goals through existing Debt investments and keep your MF investments running for a longer term.
    • If this does not work, redeem from your MF schemes only the amount you need right now for the goal. For example if your child’s college fees are 20 lacs in 4 years and 5 lacs per year, then redeem only to the extent of 5 lacs.
    • If the markets manage to go up beyond the Jan 31st levels within March ( this is unlikely, but you never know ), redeem your MF units to the extent of the money you need for your goals in the next Financial year.
    • As before, avoid Dividend options and if you have any MF schemes with these then change it to Growth.
  • If you are retired or in need of regular passive income in your Financially independent state:-
    • If you had set up Arbitrage funds, Equity Savings funds or invested in Dividend option of some close ended equity NFO’s check your taxation impact and decide if it is making sense.
    • If you are a senior citizen take advantage of the 50000 Rs interest exemption and the LIC scheme with 8 % interest.
    • Rearrange your MF investments so that you only get the Dividend amounts that you need regularly. For any sudden or unplanned expenditure, you can always redeem your MF units within a day.
    • Do not churn your MF investments needlessly, you will end up paying more taxes by doing this.
    • Finally, even in the new tax regime, do not give up on equity MF. It is important for you to remain invested as a hedge to inflation.

As you can see from above, there is a need to take stock and possible reorganise your MF portfolio. However equity as an asset class and Mutual funds as an investment vehicle are still the best in the business and you should continue to bet on them.

If you have any specific queries I will be happy to answer them through my Blog or through the two Facebook groups that I run.

 

MF investments and LTCG tax – the real impact

With a lot of heat and dust about the LTCG taxation on equities one aspect of it, namely, the real impact of the tax on an investor’s long term return have largely got very little attention. I was made aware of it through an article by Dhirendra Kumar of Value Research Online and largely agree with what he has said. As many of the investors may have missed out on this, let me try and explain it in this post.

Now, we all know that it is possible for equity to grow at a rate of 12-15 % in a long term period of 10 years and more. Of course, the growth in equity is non-linear, meaning you may well grow 30 % in a year like 2017 and even have negative growth as in 2008 and 2011 etc. If we look deeper into the growth of our MF investments we will see there are clearly 2 parts to it – first is the inflation prevalent in the economy and the second is the real return you get on your investment. For example, if your MF investments have grown by 15 % and inflation during this period was 8 % then your real return is 7 %. In general, your real return can exceed 10 % in a good year for the markets and will be in the range of 4-8 % in other years. Again, if the markets turn negative or are mostly sideways in a year then your real returns may well be negative.

With this backdrop, we will take an example to understand the impact of the recently introduced LTCG tax on equities on your MF returns:

  • An investor starts investing through SIP in one of the popular MF schemes from April 1st 2018. Let us say the amount is 20000 and he wants to do it for 15 years.
  • At 12 % annual returns he will get about 1 crore, which he plans to use for his daughter’s higher education.
  • His overall LTCG will be to the tune of 64 lacs and the tax thereon will be 6.4 lacs.
  • Now if we assume that the inflation component is 6 % and the real returns are also 6 % then the real returns are to the tune of 32 lacs.
  • In effect you are paying 6.4 lacs tax on a 32 lac real gain – this comes to 20 % and not 10 % as most of us are given to understand.
  • This situation could have been corrected if indexation was allowed but that has not been done in the case of LTCG on equities.
  • The 1 lac exemption etc has very little meaning for people looking at a large goal as it will be an insignificant part as compared to the goal amount.
  • In simple terms you are being taxed on inflation too, which is grossly unfair !!

In terms of the goal itself, you will need to increase your monthly SIP amount by 1281 Rs so that you are having the required goal amount after taxation.

So what can you do from your end to see that you minimise the taxes at least? Well, for one, you can spread the redeeming over the years of college so that the impact will be shared over 4 years or so. This will not affect the total tax outgo but you will feel better that your tax payment at one time does not appear so horrendous.

I hope the intelligent readers would have understood the real dangers here. Even if your real return is much lower, say 10 % you still pay a lot of tax. For the above example at 10 % returns your LTCG is 47 lacs and you pay tax of 4.7 lacs. As a percentage of real return you are now talking of well over 30 %. If your real returns are even lower if the market tanks in that year, then the tax paid as a percentage will be even higher.

The conclusion is a simple one – by not allowing for indexation the FM has really dealt a body blow to long term investors who have been investing seriously over the last several years and have played a stellar role in the success of our stock markets.

What strategies can you adopt for your investments? I will take this up in another post.

LTCG tax on equities – How to calculate?

Since I have started writing this blog there has been three budgets and I normally get a lot of queries after every budget. In this budget, understandably the maximum number of queries have been in the tax treatment of equities, where LTCG has been taxed at the rate of 10 %. I was thinking of doing a post on this but a CBDT circular clarifying the different scenarios has made my task easier.

As I do not believe in reinventing the wheel, let me just reproduce here what the circular says. I am doing this so that people reading my blog have easy access to it:-

The computation of long-term capital gains in different scenarios is illustrated as under‑

Scenario 1 — An equity share is acquired on 1st of January, 2017 at Rs. 100, its fair market value is Rs. 200 on 31st of January, 2018 and it is sold on 1st of April, 2018 at Rs. 250.

As the actual cost of acquisition is less than the fair market value as on 31st of January, 2018, the fair market value of Rs. 200 will be taken as the cost of acquisition and the long-term capital gain will be Rs. 50 (Rs. 250 — Rs. 200).

Scenario 2 —An equity share is acquired on 1st of January, 2017 at Rs. 100, its fair market value is Rs. 200 on 31st of January, 2018 and it is sold on 1st of April, 2018 at Rs. 150.

In this case, the actual cost of acquisition is less than the fair market value as on 31stof January, 2018. However, the sale value is also less than the fair market value as on 31st of January, 2018. Accordingly, the sale value of Rs. 150 will be taken as the cost of acquisition and the long-term capital gain will be NIL (Rs. 150 — Rs. 150).

Scenario 3 —An equity share is acquired on 1st of January, 2017 at Rs. 100, its fair market value is Rs. 50 on 31st of January, 2018 and it is sold on 1st of April, 2018 at Rs. 150.

In this case, the fair market value as on 31st of January, 2018 is less than the actual cost of acquisition, and therefore, the actual cost of Rs. 100 will be taken as actual cost of acquisition and the long-term capital gain will be Rs. 50 (Rs. 150— Rs. 100).

Scenario 4 — An equity share is acquired on 1st of January, 2017 at Rs. 100, its fair market value is Rs. 200 on 31st of January, 2018 and it is sold on 1st of April, 2018 at Rs. 50.

In this case, the actual cost of acquisition is less than the fair market value as on 31stJanuary, 2018. The sale value is less than the fair market value as on 31st of January, 2018 and also the actual cost of acquisition. Therefore, the actual cost of Rs. 100 will be taken as the cost of acquisition in this case. Hence, the long-term capital loss will be Rs. 50 (Rs. 50 — Rs. 100) in this case.

I hope with this all the readers would have got a very clear idea on how the tax is to be calculated. However, the more serious issue is the real impact of the tax on your investments you have been making for the long term.

The news on that front is unfortunately not a good one – I will explain in the next post.